In the conditions of dynamically developing technologies, the introduction of new programs, basic education does not provide the appropriate qualifications for the staff; there is a need for new knowledge and skills. Vocational training and retraining of personnel is becoming a necessity. And then the personnel training system comes to the rescue.
To date, there are three main types:
- professional training
- retraining of personnel (retraining),
- staff development.
Consider each view in more detail.
Methods are those that are used directly at the employee’s workplace, without interruption. That is, he continues to fulfill his duties outside the workplace when he goes to classes that are held outside the organization. As practice shows, the second option gives better results and is more effective.
Personnel training at the enterprise (workplace) is carried out by the following methods:
- Copying. This method is based on the student repeating the actions of a more experienced specialist, as if copying them. The more accurately he repeats, the faster he will develop a new skill.
- Production briefing. It is carried out with each newly hired employee during employment. It includes information about the upcoming functionality, introduces a new position, facilitates understanding of immediate responsibilities.
- Mentoring. The method is relevant where practical skills are required. An experienced employee takes patronage over a young specialist. The employee is trained at his workplace, receiving the support of a mentor. First, he tells how to do it, then he shows how he helps to take the first steps in work. It tells you if problematic situations arise, and then checks how the student has learned the acquired skills.
- Rotation To gain new experience, the student is temporarily transferred to another workplace. This is characteristic of enterprises in which full interchangeability of employees is practiced.
- Delegation. Delegation is understood as a temporary transfer of authority from one person to another in order to obtain the latest new knowledge and experience. For example, if the leader needs to go on a business trip, and he wants to temporarily delegate his authority to another person. But in order for this to go painlessly, he needs to gradually train this person, for which you can give him some instructions related to the exercise of authority.
- The method of increasing complexity. For this method, it is typical to gradually complicate the tasks assigned to the employee.
Education outside the workplace
The most effective is studying outside the workplace. It can be frontal classes (lectures), active educational events - conferences and seminars, teamwork, communication with experts, etc. Let us consider in more detail the main ones.
This method is used when you need to quickly transfer in a compact form a large amount of information. Lectures are a great way to gain theoretical knowledge, in which the training is conducted by experts. This method has its advantages and disadvantages. For example, the lack of feedback and the inability to establish how well the students have mastered the material, while the advantages include low financial costs and the supply of a large amount of information in a relatively short period of time.
Seminars and Conferences
This method is more active in comparison with lectures, since in the process of study there is the possibility of a collective discussion of various aspects of the topic, thanks to which logical thinking is improved. In addition, unlike lectures, classes are held in small groups, it is possible to make out difficult moments, using both the experience of the teacher and the students. Based on the results, an assessment of the effectiveness of staff training can be given.
The game format involves playing a situation in which trainees are offered to solve the problem.
Corporate staff training in a team or training involves setting a group of one task, which together they must solve. For the most effective work with the team, the leader also needs to participate in such classes.
With this method, the employee independently studies the proposed material. Training can take the form of studying audio or video lessons, working with special programs. The advantages of this method include: own pace of passage, lack of reference to a specific place and time of study, saving money and time. By cons - the lack of control, the inability to ask questions about the studied material, a decrease in motivation.
How to organize staff training
In order to organize everything correctly, a staff training program should be drawn up, which includes certain steps, following which we will achieve optimal results. I propose to draw up a staff training plan (example).
Step 1. We determine the purpose of study, what exactly are you waiting for. What is the purpose of the holding. Perhaps this is an increase in the motivation of employees or the creation of a talent pool, an increase in productivity and quality of work, or the preparation of employees for a change in direction.
Step 2. Choose and approve the format of study. What forms of staff training will be used. It is important to determine this because this factor influences the efficiency of the process. The form can be remote or in the form of direct contact directly with the instructor, but you need to choose based on the convenience and specifics of each organization.
Step 3. Create or choose training courses. Some companies have their own training centers where their training programs are developed. If there are no such centers in your organization, you need to turn to special companies that are professionally involved in the development of this product.
Step 4. Find and prepare trainers. To conduct the event, you need a specialist in training and staff development. This may be an existing trainer in the organization. However, it is necessary to periodically check the level of his training and send in a timely manner for further training. If there is no such person in the organization, then he is invited from the outside. But before you decide on someone, be sure to read the reviews, request documents confirming the qualifications and level of professionalism.
Step 5. We train employees of the enterprise. We start with the approval of the schedule and program. Training organizations can provide a sample staff training program. The manager should not be self-reliant from the process. Someone should control the process, for example, the HR director: employees will be trained more responsibly, knowing that management is keeping abreast. Based on the results of the passage, a staff training protocol is drawn up.
Step 6. We fix and evaluate the material passed. To determine how useful and effective the measures were, it is necessary to check the knowledge received by employees. This is best done in the form of tests, which will identify and correct weaknesses in retraining. In addition, if the employee disagrees with the test results, when appealing, the employer will have a visual confirmation of his results.
Step 7. We analyze the results and summarize. Based on the results, you can issue employees questionnaires that show the level of satisfaction with the course. Also, based on the results, staff changes are often carried out, labor remuneration is changed, and personnel reserve is formed. So the employer encourages his employees to further professional development.
What is a training plan
Any plan is a structured document reflecting the order of actions or activities aimed at achieving a specific goal or goals.
The employee training plan is a list of measures to equip employees of an enterprise with knowledge in a specific field for work in a specific direction, calculated for a period specified in it, for example, a month, a quarter or a year.
Such a plan is agreed upon by the management team of the enterprise and approved by senior management.
Next, we consider the procedure for compiling a plan in more detail.
As a rule, a training plan is drawn up by a specialist whose labor tasks are education and training of personnel in this organization. As soon as it becomes clear to management that there is a need for the training of employees, this specialist is instructed to prepare an appropriate plan taking into account the direction in which insufficient competence of the labor collective has been identified.
The need for employee training can be identified based on:
- administrative documents of management containing requirements for the level of staff training or recommendations for staff development,
- proposals of heads of departments whose employees, in their opinion, need training,
- personnel certification results,
- suggestions of the employees themselves.
To perform the tasks assigned to the specialist, he needs to do the following:
- develop a training program that will take into account the needs and goals of training,
- determine what activities should be included in the training plan,
- if training requires the involvement of third-party organizations, conduct an assessment of the market for relevant services and choose the most suitable option,
- determine the budget for training, taking into account the costs of unscheduled events, the need for which may arise directly during training,
- to develop the staff training plan itself, which is then sent to management for approval.
The compiled staff training plan (example) is sent to the heads of departments, departments of the enterprise to study and make proposals for its improvement. At the end of approvals, the plan is approved and transmitted to the responsible persons for direct implementation.
What is included in the training plan
The plan is drawn up in any form and usually contains the following items and information:
- direction of training and its goals,
- training budget, taking into account possible unplanned activities,
- in the case of training by a third-party organization, information about such an organization and the cost of its services,
- training dates
- information about trained employees (full name, position),
- the form and time of training, taking into account the working time of the staff,
- clearly formulated actions and training activities with an indication of the timing for their implementation / conduct,
- places for notes about events and comments.
During the implementation of the plan, there may be a need for additional activities, as the head of the unit should notify the senior manager in advance.
Learning Planning Brief
It should be borne in mind that planning in training is not just a list of tasks to be completed. To make a plan and follow it means to take responsibility for your education and to allocate time in the best way. If there is no plan, everything is left to chance, because it’s easy to get confused in affairs and tasks, and something extraneous can rush into the process of activity like a wind, cause confusion and confusion in it, and even discourage all desire to study. If there is a plan, we can clearly allocate time for important and minor matters, for relaxation and communication with loved ones, for purposeful development and a pleasant pastime.
Guided by these considerations, we can highlight the following advantages of drawing up a training plan:
- You yourself build the process of your activity, cutting off confusion and extraneous interferences
- You save time and effort by not spraying on multiple tasks at once
- You specifically know when and what you need to do
- You have the opportunity to assess and characterize the overall picture of the learning process, for which reason you can make adjustments if necessary
However, at the initial stages of any planning, people often encounter some difficulties, which are also worth mentioning.
For starters, this is an internal discomfort that is associated with the loss of familiar freedom of action, because if a person adheres to the plan, he cannot afford to leave the job unfulfilled only because he is tired or tired. But here it is important to be able to distinguish real freedom from illusory, behind which there is only a habit of satisfying one's bad habits, for example, leaving important things for later, and lighter and more enjoyable to do first. If you realize this, dealing with internal discomfort will be much easier.
And some people generally avoid planning, guided by the fact that they supposedly do not have time for this and they are very busy. But the fact is that perception plays a role here: any changes are perceived with difficulty, and it’s much easier to behave in accordance with old models. In reality, in order to draw up a simple but not bad plan, it takes about 10-15 minutes, which ultimately saves a lot of energy and time.
So, we figured out why planning is important and what it gives (you can also read about the benefits of planning here). But deciding to engage in their own learning according to a specific plan is only part of the matter, and not the most important one. The main difficulty lies in how the plan is drawn up, because this process has its own characteristics. Consider this issue in detail.
Creating a training plan: stages and tasks
Most likely, you are familiar with the worldly truth that happiness cannot be planned. In most cases, the way it is, because no one knows what lies in wait for him at the “next turn”. However, when it comes to self-study, the lion's share of success depends on the ability to plan. The clearer your plan is, the more control you will be able to keep the entire educational process, and you will also see how close the intended result is - how much information is learned and how it is learned.
Creating a self-study plan involves several steps:
The task of the first stage is to compile a list of what knowledge you intend to master and what skills to learn. To do this, you need to understand the ultimate goal and divide its achievement into several components - for example, classes. This is called strategic planning - you think through each lesson in detail and determine what result will be achieved at the end of each lesson.
Now move on to tactical planning. Its essence lies in the fact that you most carefully think through the actions that you will perform during each lesson. This should include the search and processing of information, which we talked about in the previous lesson, its study, the implementation of test assignments and practical exercises, if any.
The task of the second stage is the distribution of time that you plan to devote to independent learning. Initially, you need to determine the total amount of time that will be spent on all training, for example, six months. Then be guided by those points of the plan that you outlined in the previous step.
For example, if you are sure that you will master the necessary material in 360 hours, it turns out that you need to study 3 hours a day, 5 days a week: 3 hours * 5 days 15 hours * 4 weeks 60 hours * 6 months 360 hours. In the same way, you can do the reverse calculations, but here you need to know exactly how long you will master the material and how much time you generally have. For example, if you know that you have six months, and you will 100% master the material in 360 hours, you will get: 360 hours / 6 months 60 hours a month / 4 weeks 15 hours a week / 5 days (after all, 2 days you need to rest ) 3 hours a day you need to do.
In addition, it is very important to consider that the amount of information received will depend on the amount of time that you devote to studying the material.
The third stage is no less important than the two previous ones. Its task is to determine the methods and methods that you will use in training, as well as to establish what sources of information will be used for this (Internet, books, textbooks, manuals, educational video or audio materials), devices and tools (PC, laptop, smartphone, notebooks, pens, markers, pencils). But if everything is simple with sources of information and tools, then it is worth saying more about methods.
Traditionally, teaching methods are divided into three groups:
Organizational Methods. They, in turn, may differ:
- По источникам знаний: практические, наглядные и словесные (в случае самостоятельного обучения используются практические и наглядные)
- By the nature of knowledge: problematic, research, search, explanatory, illustrative and reproductive (in the case of self-study, search, research, problem and reproductive are used)
- By the nature of the presentation and perception of the material: deductive and inductive (in the case of self-study, deductive are used)
Supervisory methods. This refers to the form in which you will control your learning. With self-study, it is recommended to arrange self-tests.
Incentive methods. They suggest applying a set of self-motivation measures to learning. You can use various kinds of incentives, for example, after a productive week of classes, you can afford two full weekends, a meeting with friends, going to the cinema or a leisure park, etc.
In addition to these methods, which are considered fundamental, there are auxiliary methods. These include:
- Passive method. As a rule, it implies a passive perception of information, when, for example, a teacher explains material to students, manages the lesson process and checks the degree of information absorption by students. But in our case, this method does not work, because we are talking about self-study. The only way to use this method is to use audio and video materials when you are passive listeners or viewers.
- Active method. Usually, the active teaching method refers to the active interaction of students with the teacher. In the situation with independent learning, the active method finds expression in independent and independent data search and processing, compilation of abstracts, the use of mental maps, flowcharts, etc. This also includes self-checking and monitoring compliance with the plan. Simply put, this is just our case.
- Interactive method. It is based on the student’s interaction with other people, as well as on the implementation of various kinds of interactive tasks and exercises. These include online tests and games aimed at independently testing your knowledge.
Having decided on the methods, we proceed to the next stage in the preparation of the plan.
After making sure that you have successfully completed the previous three steps, you can begin to draw up the plan itself.
To draw up a plan, you can use special techniques (in all details the process of compiling a plan is described on this page) or you can draw up a simple plan, which does not require special knowledge.
An excellent example of a simple plan is a table, in the columns of which all the necessary data are entered: dates, classes and their brief characteristics, a list of tasks that need to be completed, a check point and a result. This table may look like this:
SEPTEMBER 2015 EDUCATION PLAN
Material preparation (research material)
- Select information sources
- Find sources of information
- Find the data you need
- Process data and draw notes
(study the planning process)
- What is planning?
- Types of Plans
- How to make a plan?
- Planning stages
- Is it possible to depart from the plan?
Keep in mind that this is just an example. You can make a table or just a list of tasks, enter any points and subparagraphs. The most important thing is that when you turn to your plan, even distracting from training for a few days, you can immediately see and understand what stage of work you are at and what should be done next.
The curriculum is best drawn up for the entire period of study of the required subject. In the event that the training is long-term (lasts several years), you need to draw up a general training plan, and then divide it into each academic year. In addition, if you have a desire to build your independent learning process as close as possible to state standards or to the standard of instruction of some educational institution, you can study the Federal State educational standards or find the curriculum of the educational institution you are interested in and draw up your plan based on these documents.
After your curriculum has been drawn up and you feel that you are ready to start training, the main stage will begin - the implementation of the plan. You just need to step by step to fulfill all its points. But in the process you will receive a lot of new information and vary something. You may have interesting thoughts about your training and the plan that you are guided by. One way or another, you may encounter a little difficulty, namely: is it worth it to perfectly follow your plan or is it possible to change something in it?
Following the training plan: yes or no?
Let's think a little bit about following the plan.
While studying at a school or institute, you could not help but notice that as you study a subject, it opens up all its new facets, which you initially had no idea about. First, the subject is considered in general terms, then some new topics appear on which all the material related to this subject is shared. The new topics also have separate points and sub-points that you must know about, etc. etc.
But the difference between studying in an educational institution and self-study is that in the first case there is a clear program worked out over the years, tested by experience and mastered by a huge number of students, and in the second case there is no such program, which means that a person studying independently may encounter a lot of " pitfalls. "
Given this feature, you should keep in mind that your training plan can always be adjusted. But here it is necessary to think correctly, and to understand when it is not worthwhile to depart from the plan, and when it is possible to go aside a little. In this regard, we consider two points.
How not to get away from the plan?
The question of how to get away from the plan can be divided into two components.
The first component concerns the new information that you receive. Often, in the process of studying a subject, attention can “cling” to something that may seem more interesting. It can be some kind of scientific facts, information about an adjacent direction, etc. For example, planning goes hand in hand with achieving goals, and, studying the intricacies of planning, you can involuntarily switch to a new topic, which seems to relate to the main subject, but does not apply directly to it.
As a result, you can delve into the “jungle” of other knowledge, and miss the main task from view. To avoid this, it is very important to always remember what exactly you study and why. As a “reminder” you can use notes or stickers - they can be hung around the house or attached to a computer. The main thing is that they are in front of the eyes and fulfill their function - they remind you of the main thing. You can also use the plan itself - always keep it close by and look into it from time to time - so the focus will always remain on the main task.
The second component concerns, to a greater extent, self-discipline. It’s clear that everyone needs to relax and from time to time turn their attention to other activities. But this may be fraught with the fact that you, only temporarily distracting from your plan, risk coming back to it very soon. Following the plan is self-control. If, as they say, “release the reins”, you can work out all day more pleasant, postpone the start of work on “Monday”, etc. This must be avoided by all means.
In order not to fall into the trap of imaginary fatigue, “lack of time” or procrastination, you must be able to motivate yourself to follow the plan. Motivators can serve the goals that you want to achieve, the results that you strive for, the skills that you want to master. You need to constantly remember what you are striving for. For this, both the tools that we have already talked about (notes, stickers), and all kinds of tools that will remind you of your goals, for example, photographs of people who have the qualities, knowledge and skills that you want to possess, are suitable for this. themed pictures, desktop backgrounds on the computer, an alarm clock on the phone, etc. But the most important motivator (and this is important to remember) is, of course, the daily immersion in activity - following your plan.
When can you move away from the plan?
You can get away from the plan a little to the side only if during the course of studying the material you have questions for which you do not know the answers, but without the answers to which you cannot continue effective training. Just think: if you study oratory, you will certainly come across a question of behavior on the stage, which is directly related to acting. And this means that to become a professional speaker, you will definitely need to master the skill of the stage movement. Based on this, you can move away a little from your plan, which initially did not imply a study of acting, for example, devoting one week to studying the basics of movement on stage.
And there can be as many situations like this. The main thing here is to understand the essence: it is possible to depart from the intended plan only when it is necessary to study additional material necessary for the full mastery of the basic and not reducing the effectiveness of independent learning. It is also important to note that moving away from the plan involves a one-time action that will not be repeated systematically. If in practice you are faced with the fact that your plan is incomplete or the development of the material is impossible without something that you have not previously taken into account, the plan should be adapted to new needs. In fact, it is not difficult, but to say about it will not be superfluous.
Flexibility in learning: making changes to the plan and creativity
The learning process, especially independent, should not be understood as something permanent and not allowing changes. It should always be carried out intuitively, because no one can know its subtleties and details better than you. Accordingly, if you are faced with the fact that the starting version of the plan is somewhat inferior, and isolated attempts to improve it do not bring the desired result, the plan can and should be adapted.
The adaptation of the curriculum, in fact, is the application of a flexible approach to learning. Adapting a plan means making changes to it through which it becomes the most effective and allows you to fully master the material being studied. If, for example, you decide to study time management, most likely, when drawing up a plan, you might not have taken into account that this technology of organizing and managing time, in addition to consisting of specific systems and requiring the use of special tools, also includes such processes as goal setting and planning, and without studying them, mastering time management to the fullest does not work. There is only one way out - to adapt the plan - to expand it, include additional points and allocate time for studying goal setting and planning. So, you will have new sources of information, new classes, new tasks and new stages of self-testing, in other words, your plan will be adapted to the specifics of the subject being studied.
But there is one more nuance of adapting the plan. It consists not only in a flexible, but also in a creative approach to learning. This means that if you still did not see, so to speak, the big picture at the stage of the plan, then as you study, you will begin to notice that for a more complete and quick development of the material you may need some tools that you have not thought about before .
For example, the most important information can be depicted as a diagram on a magnetic whiteboard so that it is always in front of your eyes. If you want to make sure of something in practice, you can gather friends at home and conduct your own experiment. If you don’t quite understand how this or that principle works in practice, you can go to the school where you studied, find a teacher who you know and ask him to explain obscure points. If your homework interferes with you, you can come up with an “official” lesson for yourself - go to the library reading room and spend the time allotted for classes there, or even arrange an office for classes, marking the space with hanging blankets or even sheets of drywall.
Creatively, this is the application of non-standard thinking and creativity to the learning process: standing face to face with a particular problem, “turn on the brain” and figure out how it can be solved if standard methods are unsuitable.
And in conclusion of the lesson, it’s worth touching on that knowledge, skills, i.e. competencies that can increase the effectiveness of self-study and assimilation of material.
Competencies required for self-study
Below we will provide a small list of those competencies that it is desirable to master before (it is possible and in the process) how to start independent training, and also indicate links to those pages of our intellectual club where you can find all the necessary information.
- Do important things quickly - A useful skill that will help you learn how to fulfill your plan, regardless of complexity, on time. We recommend that you find out what procrastination is and learn about effective ways to combat procrastination. You can also study interesting material on the topic of where our time goes.
- Self discipline - the ability of a person to control himself and his behavior, to perform important work without any excuses and to follow what he has defined for himself as a way of life. We advise you to get acquainted with the material on the development of self-discipline.
- Self motivation - the ability to influence oneself in such a way as to perform even the most unpleasant things without internal resistance, as well as the ability to maintain the desire to constantly achieve goals. You can read about some useful tips on self-motivation and take the time to learn how to self-motivate (for those who want to quickly move to practice, we offer 10 practical methods of self-motivation for every day).
- Good habits - habits that allow you to act as productively as possible. To begin with, you can read about unproductive habits and learn about how to get rid of bad habits (you can use some methods of dealing with bad habits), and then move on to developing good habits.
- Time management - effective technology for managing and using time, which has gained popularity among people around the world. A whole course is dedicated to this technology. Use time with maximum benefit for yourself - study it.
- Memory - human ability to accumulate, save and reproduce information. The better your memory, the more you can remember and apply in life. Take a few days to improve your memory.
- Logical thinking - A special thought process during which a person operates with logical concepts and constructions, and becomes able to draw the right conclusions based on the data received. To develop logical thinking, you can take a training course.
- Creative thinking and creativity - the person’s ability to perform various kinds of tasks using non-standard methods, and the ability to find unusual ways out of any situations. To master these skills, an excellent training material on the topic of creativity development has been compiled specifically for you.
- Speed reading and verbal counting - two more useful competencies that help a person in life. Having developed the ability to count in the mind, you will learn how to perform complex mathematical operations without using paper and a pen or calculator. And by learning to read quickly, you can study and process huge amounts of text data in record time.
- Goal setting and planning - two skills that we have mentioned more than once in this lesson. The names speak for themselves: having mastered the skill to set goals, you can achieve the highest results in life, no matter what it may be. And the ability to plan will be a great help for you, both in achieving goals, and in any other activity.
Plus, you can take advantage of a few more self-study recommendations.
We sincerely hope that the information that you learned from the third lesson will serve you well in your eagerness to learn new things yourself and learn the intricacies of any knowledge.
In the next lesson, we will talk in more detail about what motivation is in learning, how and what goals should be set in order for training to be effective, as well as issues of time management and the importance of developing perseverance and being open to new information.
Test your knowledge
If you want to test your knowledge on the topic of this lesson, you can take a short test consisting of several questions. In each question, only 1 option can be correct. После выбора вами одного из вариантов, система автоматически переходит к следующему вопросу. На получаемые вами баллы влияет правильность ваших ответов и затраченное на прохождение время. Обратите внимание, что вопросы каждый раз разные, а варианты перемешиваются.