Today we will consider:
This article was created specifically for those computer users who want to try really something new and interesting on their computer. Linux is a completely free operating system, which is significantly different from Windows and in many ways for the better.
If you decide to install Linux on your computer (laptop) running Windows, then this article will help you accomplish this task.
Linux Ubuntu System Requirements
Ubuntu uses the GNOME desktop environment, it is beautiful, modern and functional, so Linux Ubuntu is not among the lightweight distributions that you can use on "Weak" equipment. Ubuntu, in comparison with other distributions, has rather serious system requirements, but for modern PCs this is not a problem. The requirements are as follows:
- 2 GHz dual-core processor or higher,
- RAM 2 GB or more
- 25 GB of free hard disk space recommended.
If your computer meets all the stated requirements, then the system will work quickly.
Step 1 - Download the Linux Ubuntu Installation Image
Almost all Linux distributions are distributed as ISO disk images, so in order to install Linux Ubuntu, you must first download the ISO installation file. This can be done, of course, from the official Ubuntu website, here is the download page - https://www.ubuntu.com/download/desktop
This page always contains links to current versions of Linux Ubuntu. After going to the page, just click on the button "Download".
Step 2 - Burn the installation ISO image to disk or USB flash drive
After you have downloaded the Linux Ubuntu installation ISO image, you need to burn it to a DVD disc or a USB flash drive in order to create a bootable installation media from which the installation will be performed.
There are many different programs for this (links to instructions for working with some programs I also attach).
- To record to a USB flash drive: Rufus or Etcher,
- For burning to disc: CDBurnerXP, ImgBurn, UltraISO.
- For recording to a USB flash drive: Etcher or standard program “Recording an image to a USB drive”,
- To burn to disc: k3b or Brasero.
Step 3 - Download from the installation media and run the installation program
You prepared the installation media with Linux Ubuntu, now you can proceed to the installation process.
The first thing to do is boot from this installation media, i.e. from a disk or a USB flash drive. To do this, in the BIOS, you need to put this media in first place in the order of boot devices. We talked about this in more detail in the material - "How to boot from a flash drive?" Changing the boot order of devices in the BIOS ».
When you boot from the media, you will immediately be prompted to select a language, select the desired one and press enter (Enter).
After that a menu will open. To install on your computer’s hard drive, click on "Install Ubuntu". If you want to run Linux Ubuntu without installing, in Live mode, for example, in order to test the system or just look at it, then click on the item “Run Ubuntu without installation”.
Step 4 - Choosing a Language
The Linux Ubuntu installer will start. First we need to select the system language, by default the one you selected when you just booted from the media is selected. Push "Continue".
Step 6 - Installation Options for Applications and Updates
Now we need to select the applications that we want to install, for this we select the software installation mode:
- Normal installation - This is a system installation with a standard set of applications. Recommended for ordinary PC users, since in this case all the necessary programs will be automatically installed,
- Minimum installation - This is a system installation with a minimum set of applications. You can use this mode if you need a clean system with only basic utilities, you will install all applications yourself. A mode for those who like to customize the system for themselves, i.e. Install only those applications that he needs.
Leave by default, i.e. “Normal installation”, also, if there is Internet, a tick “Download Updates During Ubuntu Installation” also better to leave, click "Continue".
Step 7 - Partitioning Your Hard Drive in Ubuntu
Then we need to partition the hard drive, in other words, create the necessary partitions. I must say right away that my hard drive is clean and there are no partitions on it. So now I will show you how to partition a hard disk in Linux Ubuntu on a blank hard disk. We will do all the necessary operations manually, i.e. You yourself will be able to create partitions and specify their size, this is nothing complicated. To do this, click "Another variant".
At the same time, if you do not want to bother with manual partitioning, an option is available in which the installation program will automatically partition the hard drive, in this case, select - “Erase Drive and Install Ubuntu”.
If you already have some system installed, the installation program may offer you several more options, for example, Reinstall System, “Uninstall the system and complete the reinstallation”, as well as “Install Ubuntu next to an already installed system” (in this case, when you turn on the computer, you will choose which system should boot).
I choose the item "Another variant" and click "Continue".
There is no partition table on a clean hard drive, so we need to create it. Push button "New Partition Table".
The installation program warns us that a new partition table will be created, and all existing partitions on this disk will be deleted, in our case (clean hard drive) there are simply no sections, so click "Continue".
Then, in order to create a new section, select "Free place" and click the plus sign.
First, we need to create a system partition (root partition) for the system itself. To do this, specify the following data:
- Size - at least 10-15 gigabytes should be specified for the root partition, but it is better to specify more, for example, 50 gigabytes (for example, I specify 15 gigabytes, since I have a small test hard drive),
- Type of new section - specify "Primary",
- Location of the new section - specify "The beginning of this space",
- Use as - select the Ext4 journaled file system, this file system is best suited for the root partition,
- Mount point - for the root partition, specify "/".
The system partition has been created, now we need to create a partition for user data, i.e. "Home section". It is necessary so that if you reinstall the system or even change the Linux distribution, all our personal data (documents, photos, videos) remained in place.
In this case, we also select the free space and click on the plus sign.
To create a home partition, you must specify:
- Size - maximum possible, in other words, you can specify the remaining space,
- Type of new section - specify "Logical",
- Location of the new section - specify "The beginning of this space",
- Use as - also select the Ext4 file system,
- Mount point - specify "/ home".
Partitioning the hard disk in Linux Ubuntu we performed (created two required sections), now you can start the installation of the distribution, click Install Now.
Next, the Ubuntu installer will ask us if we want to write all the changes made to the disk, since up to this point everything can be undone, click "Continue".
Step 9 - Create a User
Now we need to create an account, i.e. the user we will be working with. Enter the name, computer name, login, password and confirm it. For security reasons, I recommend the item “Require password to log in” leave on. If you do not want to enter a password each time you log in, you can check the box "Log in automatically" (provided that only you will work on the computer, otherwise it is unsafe).
Enter the data and click "Continue".
Installing Linux Ubuntu has begun, it will take literally 10-15 minutes, at this time you can still see the slides.
Screenshots Linux Ubuntu
Linux Ubuntu Desktop
Ubuntu Application Launcher Menu
File manager and program manager in Linux Ubuntu
Here we are with you and have considered installing the Linux Ubuntu distribution, that's all for me, good luck!
Stage 1: boot the system image
First of all, you will need to download the Linux image that will be installed on your computer. First of all, I would like to note that Linux has developed many operating systems, such as Kali, Arch, Mint, Fedora, etc. But perhaps the most popular OS among users is Ubuntu, so the link at the end of the article gives a link to it, but This instruction is suitable for other versions.
Stage 2: creating a bootable USB flash drive (disk)
To create bootable media, you will need to consult specialized software. We recommend that you use the UNetbootin program, which can be downloaded from this link.
After downloading the file, run it. The program window will immediately appear on the screen. Check the "Disk Image" checkbox, and then click on the ellipsis button to indicate the path to the downloaded Ubuntu.
Below, select the type of media (flash drive or disk), and to the right indicate the drive letter. Click "OK" to start creating a bootable USB flash drive.
Stage 3: OS installation
Now you need to go to the BIOS on your computer to put your boot device in first place. To do this, send the computer to reboot and, at the time it starts up, press the key several times that answers the BIOS entry. Typically, it is F2, but the desired key (or even a combination) may differ from the computer and the BIOS version.
If the F2 key does not produce the desired result, try using the Del key and pay attention to the entries on the computer screen - as a rule, the message “Press [key name] for Settings” should be displayed on the screen, which will tell you how to get into the BIOS .
On modern computers, as a rule, the modern UEFI interface is displayed, where control is carried out not only with the keyboard, but also with the mouse. Go to the “BOOT” (download) section and drag your flash drive (disk) to the first place with the mouse.
If the familiar BIOS is displayed on the computer, then, again, you will need to open the “Boot” - “Hard Disk Drives” section, and then indicate your USB flash drive or DVDROM near the “1st Drive” item (if Linux is installed from the disk).
Go to the main menu with the Esc key, and then click the “Save changes and exit” button to save the settings and exit the BIOS.
In accordance with the specified setting, the computer will start to boot, and the following window should appear on the screen:
In the left part of the window, set the language to “Russian”, and on the right, select “Install Ubuntu”.
In the next window, you will need to make sure that your computer has enough free space to install Ubuntu, as well as check the activity of the Internet connection. The presence of the Internet is an optional item. Check the box “Install this third-party software” a little lower so that your Linux computer can play MP3 files, and then click the “Continue” button.
Next you need to note how Linux will be installed: next to the current Windows or with a full replacement. If you want to have two operating systems on the computer and each time you start the computer to determine for yourself what exactly will be loaded, select the first item.
If you are not going to return to Windows, and also you do not need the files stored on it, then select the second item. Click the Continue button.
In the next window, you will be asked to indicate a tough suit on which the operating system will be installed. Also, if necessary, you can move the slider to independently determine how much space you allocate for Ubuntu. However, if you are a novice user, we do not recommend touching on this item, because You can completely lose the installed Windows. Click the “Install Now” button to continue.
A warning window will be displayed on the screen informing you of the creation of new partitions on the disk. Accept it by clicking the Continue button.
After some time, a window will appear on the screen in which you need to specify the time zone and time. Next, you will need to fill out information about the user and the computer, as well as set a password. Here you can immediately set whether the computer will ask for a password every time you log in, or if the OS will be without a password. Click the Continue button.
And finally, the very installation of Linux on the computer went. A line will be displayed at the bottom of the window informing you of the installation process. Wait for the installation to complete.
Done! Now you can begin to study the new OS.