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Style in literature is a reflection of the author’s attitude (as a narrator) to the theme of the story and its readers. The author's style is manifested in his choice of words. Your ability to understand a style often determines the difference between understanding a topic and its complete absence. You can analyze the style by searching for characteristic elements in the text of a story or story. Teachers of literature often recommend to memorize and recall in the literary and stylistic analysis the letters MODYAS, which mean the words “manner of expression”, “images”, “details”, “language” and “sentence structure” (syntax).
The artistic style is used in writing novels, short stories, and poems. His purpose lies in the author’s desire to convey a colorful, lively picture and create an emotional connection with the portrayed characters or the ongoing actions. The presentation is distinguished by expressiveness, vivid emotional coloring of statements and specificity of the described images.
Carrying out a stylistic analysis of the literary text, one can notice the use of characteristic language techniques, such as:
- Specific words - e.g. tree, moon.
- Words or phrases in a figurative meaning - for example, beat the buck.
- Words with bright emotional coloring - for example, son, granny.
- Expressive means conveying an artistic image:
- epithets - bright sun,
- metaphors - Golden hair,
- avatars - milk escaped,
- comparisons - snow white.
The above means of expressiveness of speech can be studied in more detail on the example of the work of art “Golden Rain” by N. Sladkov:
“Throughout the summer, the leaves put their hands and cheeks, backs and tummies to the sun. And before that they were filled and saturated with the sun, that by the fall they themselves became like suns - crimson and gold. They poured, became heavy and flowed. They flew by the Orioles in the wind. Squirrels jumped over the knots ... "
The scientific style of storytelling has found wide application in dictionaries, reference books, textbooks, and scientific works. It is used to transmit disciplinary information. Carrying out a stylistic analysis of a scientific text, the following key features can be noted: clarity of presentation of genuine material, as well as the use of words only in their direct meaning.
Like any other language device, such a story has its own characteristics. Its most pronounced feature is the frequent use of special words - terms. The following text perfectly illustrates the specifics of the scientific style: "Under the influence of the sun, chlorophyll is produced in the leaves of plants. Chlorophyll is a green pigment contained in chloroplasts and causes its color to turn green. During photosynthesis, chlorophyll absorbs solar energy and converts it into the energy of internal chemical compounds substances. "
In periodicals, the journalistic style is most often found. This form of presentation is typical of journal or newspaper articles. Carrying out a stylistic analysis of a journalistic text, one can immediately note its characteristic linguistic features. They, in particular, are:
- Social and political vocabulary.
- Proverbs, aphorisms, sayings.
- Solemn vocabulary.
- Exclamation and incentive sentences.
- Rhetorical questions.
A striking example of a text written in a journalistic style are the statements of A. Mikhanov:
"Let’s give peace to planet Earth! Peace is the firm assurance of fathers and mothers that their children will grow up healthy and happy. Peace is the laugh of children and the silence of guns. We will leave guns only for holiday fireworks. Let's give peace to planet Earth!"
Statement of purpose
The stylistic analysis of the text allows not only to correctly determine the speech technique used by the author when writing the text, he is also an excellent simulator in the ability to select the exact words and make sentences from them to create your own story. In addition, stylistic analysis of the text provides a deeper understanding of the author’s intent.
Stylistic text analysis plan
Assessment and reproduction of the narrative is more appropriate to carry out according to the scheme. We will conduct a stylistic analysis of the text. Example:
"Thunderstorm - a natural phenomenon characterized by the occurrence of electric discharges in large thunderstorm clouds, as well as between clouds, the surface of the earth and objects located on it. Lightning is accompanied by strong winds (sometimes heavy), heavy rainfall, hail can fall. Thunderstorm is a consequence of a high concentration of water "steam over highly overheated land in hot weather, and also observed when a large mass of cold air moves to a warmer bed."
- The subject of the text is a scientific description of such a concept of atmospheric phenomenon as a thunderstorm.
- The purpose of the story is to provide important information about a natural phenomenon and the features of its occurrence.
- The genre of presentation is a scientific reference article.
- The type of story is prosaic.
- The style of the text is scientific. The material presented also has a popular science style.
- Literary environment - narration is of interest to a wide range of readers - from specialists to schoolchildren.
1. The characteristic of the phonetic style is neutral. This is indicated by:
- even narrative sentences without emotional coloring,
- book (neutral) lexical and phraseological features of the narrative,
- spelling complies with established pronunciation standards,
- the logical sequence of presentation of the material, its structural and semantic completeness, as well as the close relationship of individual sentences suggest that the rhythm of the material corresponds to the scientific style.
2. The lexico-semantic combination. There are no synonymous series in the text, unambiguous speech elements and terminological expressions prevail.
3. The vocabulary of the text is active:
- Commonly used words such as precipitation, clouds, hail, wind,
- also in the text often occurs the vocabulary of a limited use characteristic of a scientific article, that is, terminology,
- there is no emotionally expressive vocabulary,
- the text uses both original and borrowed from other languages words, which is also a characteristic feature of the scientific style,
- there are no expressive means of language.
4. Word-forming characteristic - in the presented material derivatives are often found obtained using productive suffixes, such as -yan, -sk-, -n-. At the same time, contextual formations and subjective suffixes are absent in the text.
- The presentation of the material in the text has the specifics of a scientific style in the form of the predominance of nouns over the verb.
- Lack of first-person narration and appeal to the reader. The text of the presentation of information is carried out from a third party.
- The use of nouns paired with definitive adjectives is the reason for the high information content of the article and its brevity.
- Adjectives that form terminological combinations with nouns are also often found in the text.
- The material uses the verbs of the real voice in the present tense, which emphasizes the immutability of the described actions.
- A large number of participles in various forms, which is also characteristic of the scientific style.
The narrative consists of 3 simple sentences complicated by homogeneous members and participatory reverse constructions. Speech constructions have a narrative character with neutral vocabulary and a logical sequence of words. Conclusion: the analysis of each level of the text, and especially the lexical one, is an undeniable proof of the manifestation of the scientific style of speech in the presentation of the material.