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The house has come off - roots: how buildings are transferred


It would seem, what a stupid question? The building has a foundation, it stands firmly on it. Anyway, this is not a collapsible children's designer! Moreover, they have built and are building for centuries.

But in life there are situations when the building needs to be moved a few meters. And to disassemble and reassemble is equivalent to new construction in time. And what is disassembly-assembly? The same destruction followed by a recovery attempt! Expensive, very time consuming and ineffective in terms of the preservation of aged materials. Therefore, at all times, if it was required to make room for something more important than the building itself standing on it, they used explosives. Fast, very cheap and affordable.

For example, a railway was built and in some place it rested on a building. He was simply demolished, and tenants were given monetary compensation. There are many such cases in history. But there are also cases when the whole building "moved" to a new place.

The first documentary evidence of a building moving to another location dates back to 1455. It was then that the Italian architect, engineer Aristotle Fioravanti moved the bell tower of the church in Bologna for 13 meters in a few days. The height of the bell tower was 24 meters. Moving it freed up space for the construction of a new city administration.

In Russia, the first documentary evidence of the movement of the building dates back to 1812, when Dmitry Petrov, a self-taught serf mechanic, together with the workers allocated to help him, moved a wooden church in Morshansk to 42 arshins (1 arshin = 71.12 centimeters).

There is documentary evidence that in Germany in 1900 the building was moved to another place with the help of two steam locomotives, after having previously raised the building to the laid rails.

In general, it should be noted that the movement of buildings is a very complicated matter, requiring accurate calculations, considerable material and financial resources. But everything pays off.

In Soviet times, the largest amount of work on moving buildings was done in Moscow. This was due to the general reconstruction of the capital. Mainly with the need to expand the carriageway of the streets, rectifying those sections where detours for transport turned out to be uncomfortable. The reconstruction plan was approved in 1934. The work was supposed to begin in 1938. True, there has already been some experience in moving multi-storey buildings in Moscow.

In 1937, a problem arose in the capital near the new Krasnokholmsky bridge under construction - a five-story building on Sadovnicheskaya Street began to interfere. He was "sawn" in height with jackhammers. Then, with the help of 1200 rollers, the “sawn off” part was moved deeper into the yard and there it was turned 30 degrees. (The Pravda newspaper wrote about this in the issue of June 11, 1937).

Before the Great Patriotic War in Moscow, workers of a specially created trust moved 22 brick buildings. For the most part on Gorky Street (now it was returned to its historical name - Tverskaya). In total, more than 30 large buildings were moved (taking into account the post-war period).

Moving small buildings was carried out not only in Moscow. Unfortunately, documents about them were not preserved in museums. But in the people's memory, a reliable case is known when several rural houses moved at once. In particular, in the Uryupinsky district of the Volgograd region, during the reduction of unpromising settlements, they were moved from the Kachkarsky village to the Tepikinskaya village (and this is a distance of several kilometers!) Using wooden rollers and DT-54 tracked tractors with cables from more than ten houses. On the site of the former farm, stone foundations that have collapsed over time are now barely noticeable.

All in all, in the world in different ways (say, using hydraulic lifts), even by rough estimates, over the last two centuries, more than a hundred buildings have been moved without any dismantling. The last case of moving a large object dates back to 1979, when a new building was built for Izvestia in Moscow, and the former (the house of the publisher Sytin) was moved 30 meters to Mayakovsky Square.

Gift to beloved queen

Abu Simbel is a monument of world significance. Here, in Upper Egypt, not far from the border with Sudan, in the 13th century BC, two majestic temples were erected in the rocks. One of these sanctuaries was dedicated by the pharaoh of the XIX dynasty Ramses II to his divine image, and the other, smaller, to his beloved wife Nefertari. Never in the history of ancient Egypt did the spouse of a ruler receive such a fantastic honor. The sculptures of the pharaoh on the pediments of temples amaze the imagination with its grandeur. More than three thousand years after Ramses II, in 1960−64. Egypt with the fraternal help of the Leningrad Institute "Hydroproject" erected the Aswan Dam on the Nile, after which the reservoir - Lake Nasser began to fill.

History of Unique Engineering Operations

It sounds incredible, but in the 1930s, a real boom in moving houses began in Moscow. Architects implemented large-scale projects that required a place, but it was not. Sometimes a brick house stood in the way of a new project.

Most of these houses were destroyed, but there were also buildings that were lucky - they were moved to a new place. MOSLENTA selected the most interesting displaced buildings and looked at how they look now.

Moving houses is not a Soviet innovation: the relocation of architectural structures has been known for a long time. Back in 1455, the Italian engineer Aristotle Fioravanti moved the bell tower of the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Bologna to a distance of more than 10 meters.

The church interfered with the construction of the new building of the city administration, so the engineer enclosed the tower in a frame of wooden beams, and then moved it using a system of ropes and blocks. By the way, later Foravanti took part in the construction of the Assumption Cathedral in Moscow. In Russia, the first experiments on moving buildings were known even before the revolution. In particular, in 1897, in connection with the expansion of the Nikolaev (now October) railway in Moscow, a two-story house was moved, which they first wanted to demolish.

The building was completely new and belonged to the honorary citizen of Moscow, the owner of the cement plant Evgenia Ivanovna McGill. The owner decided that the demolition of the new building is useless, because it can be moved. And to implement this incredible idea, McGill agreed to his own means. The work was supervised by engineer Fedorovich. The building was freed from furniture, doors and window frames, stoves were also dismantled, after which the workers cut the house and moved it using horse traction. The applied method later went down in history as the “Method of moving Fedorovich.”

This building was the first brick house to be moved to Moscow. The house still stands in its new place at the address: Kalanchevskaya street, 32/61. Unfortunately, now the famous building is abandoned.

A real boom of travel swept the capital in the 1930s. The plans for moving the buildings were so widespread that in 1936 even a special office was organized - “Trust for the Moving and Dismantling of Buildings”. The engineer E.M. Handel, who went down in history precisely as an "ascetic."

The employees of the new enterprise were mainly metro builders, who faced similar tasks when laying underground tunnels. After that, over several decades, almost 70 houses were moved in Moscow.

In 1937, Moscow city planners decided to reconstruct the Krasnokholmsky bridge. The project was large-scale - it was planned not only to rebuild the bridge, but also to create new congresses. It turned out that one of the houses, which was located at the address: Osipenko street, house 77 (today Sadovnicheskaya street, house 77, building 1), interferes with future construction.

The house had the shape of the letter "G", and one of its parts stood exactly in the place where the entrance to the bridge was to be built. The building was "young", built in 1929, so they decided not to demolish it, but to divide it into two parts and move one of them, while expanding it by 19 degrees.

The work was complicated by the fact that the house stood on marshy soil, the foundation sagged even at the construction stage, because of which it was necessary to drive in piles and import soil. The move was dangerous, the head of the site, which carried out the work, even called it a gamble, but the leader of the trust, Handel ordered: no matter what, continue to move the building.

This work was the first major order for the trust, and it was completed successfully. It is interesting that during the relocation of the house, the tenants were not evicted or even turned off the utility networks: the apartments continued to run water, electricity, gas, sewage and a telephone. All communications were connected through temporary rubber tubes.

The separated buildings were later connected by an extension, in which in 1967 a major explosion occurred, killing 147 people. This happened, probably due to subsidence of the ground under the building.

The famous house exists today, people still live in it. Only now the five-story building has a different address - Osipenko Street was renamed Sadovnicheskaya.

Iron in the ground

The first step is to somehow separate the house from the base. To do this, a trench is torn around the building, and then it is cut from the foundation. In the practice of Moscow movements, metal cables were used as a cutting tool. Of course, at this stage the building will not go anywhere: it is enough to slightly move it from its place - and it will begin to collapse. Before the journey begins, a brick, stone or tree will have to be held together.

The first step is to strengthen the building with the so-called waist beams. Another option is to encircle the house with a concrete monolith. The next step is the construction of a powerful metal frame, on which the building will hit the road.

Threat and salvation

The waters of Lake Nasser were rapidly approaching the temples and, according to calculations, were soon to completely flood the monuments. The temple rescue program was led by UNESCO and the Egyptian government. Transfer money (about $ 80 million) was collected around the world. In 1964−68 the temples were sawn into huge blocks and moved 65 m higher and 200 m further from the water's edge. There, the buildings were reassembled and cemented with cement mortar. Behind the temples erected supporting structures made of concrete, as if replacing the rock from which the temples were carved.

External and internal walls, which will be perpendicular to the direction of movement, are most vulnerable, therefore they need to be strengthened especially. In the walls, longitudinal grooves (shtabs) are made, where powerful iron beams are embedded in the form of an I-beam. These reinforcing structures are called random beams. Openings for rail tracks are punched below the random beams in the walls (they will go perpendicular to the random beams). Rollers are installed on the laid tracks, and so-called running beams are installed on them. Transverse beams are placed above the running beams, which are rigidly fastened to the rand beams, but the running beams do not yet touch. So the supporting frame takes its final form. Finally, metal wedges are driven into the remaining gap between the running and transverse beams. At this moment, the weight of the building is transferred from the foundation to the rollers placed on the rails. It remains to disassemble the masonry between the gaps for the rail tracks, and the house can be rolled.

Actually, the described technology is just one of the options. In different cases, depending on the weight of the house and other conditions, the design of the support frame and the methods for placing it on the rollers could differ. But the general principle remained unchanged. When moving the building, pushing jacks and winches were usually used to tow the building forward.

The Moscow City Council House is one of the most famous examples of the transfer of structures in Moscow. In 1939, the building (then not yet built) was moved deep into the block by 13.6 m. Despite the objections of the architects (the rush to move the buildings to nothing), the former governor-general’s house moved to a new place at the “Stakhanov pace” - in 41 minutes. All this once again proves that there was a lot of politics, ideology and a desire to demonstrate to the West the technical achievements of the country of victorious socialism in the fashion for building transfers. In the current, already bourgeois Moscow, only railway bridges were moved. With houses treated differently.

But what about us?

It is surprising and sad that the Soviet exploits in the field of the movement of buildings are practically unknown abroad. On one of the well-visited American popular science sites, in the five heaviest buildings that have ever been moved, there is not a single Moscow, but there are four American, although a Chinese house is recognized as a record holder. He weighed 13,500 tons and was moved 36 meters, which is why he ended up in the Guinness Book of Records. It is worth recalling that the Savvinsky Compound transferred by Handel weighs 23,000 tons.