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So the idea turned into a theory, and theory into a universally recognized wisdom. Along with each rule, we list exceptions. After all, as we were taught at school, each rule has it.
1. Rule of preparation
The most effective workout simulates the competition you are preparing for.
This is the basic rule of training for any activity. If you want to run 10 kilometers at a pace of 5 min / km, then you need to do a few workouts at that pace.
An exception: It is impractical to completely simulate competition (especially long distances), as this will require a longer recovery. Therefore, in preparation for a certain start, run a little shorter distance or take short segments with recovery pauses (interval training) at the desired pace.
Increase your weekly training mileage by no more than 10 percent.
Joe Henderson, the first editor of Runner’s World, and Joan Ullet, MD, were the first to make the recommendation about ten percent:
“I noticed that runners who increase their training load very quickly are injured,” says Dr. Ullet.
An exception: if after a long break in training your mileage does not exceed 10 km per week, you can increase it by more than 10% until you reach your usual training load.
3. The rule of 2 hours
About two hours should pass between eating and training.
“For most people, two hours is enough for food to get out of the stomach, especially if it is rich in carbohydrates,” says dieter Cindy Dallou.
Time after eating is necessary for the digestion of what is eaten. Otherwise, the risk of abdominal cramping, bloating and even vomiting is increased.
An exception: after a light high-carb meal you can run after 90 minutes, while after a heavy meal saturated with proteins and fats, you will need to wait up to three hours.
4. Rule of 10 minutes
Begin each run with ten minutes of walking or a slow run. Do the same for the hitch.
Warm-up before running prepares the body for training, gradually increasing blood flow and increasing muscle temperature. Perhaps the hitch is even more important: a sudden stop after running can cause leg cramps, nausea, dizziness, or fainting.
An exception: on warm days you will need less than ten minutes.
5. The rule of two days
If something hurts for two days in a row, rest for the next two days.
Pain lasting two days may signal the onset of injury.
“Even a complete 5-day rest from running will affect the level of your physical condition,” said Troy Smuraua, MD, USA Triathlon team doctor.
An exception: if something hurts for two weeks, even if at this time you take a break from running, consult a doctor.
6. The rule of habitual food
Do not eat or drink anything new before, during a competition, or hard training.
The gastrointestinal tract gets used to a certain composition of nutrients. Usually you can change this composition without problems, but in the conditions of a pre-start tremor, you risk digestive disorders.
An exception: if you can barely stay on your feet, then eating unfamiliar food is probably better than not eating anything.
7. Recovery rule
For every two kilometers covered in a competition, allow yourself one day of rest before returning to hard training or competition.
This means no speed work or competition for six days after ten kilometers or twenty six days after the marathon. The author of this rule is Jack Foster, the holder of a world record among veterans of the marathon:
"My method is about one day of rest from running for every two kilometers that I ran in the competition."
An exception: if you haven’t run away, you can reduce the number of days of rest.
8. Rule of headwind and tailwind
The headwind always slows down more than the tail winds.
Therefore, keep in mind that on windy days you will run slower.
“I don’t pay attention to the clock on very windy days, because the headwind costs me 10 to 15 seconds per kilometer, and I can catch only a fraction of it if I turn around,” says Mont Wells, a long distance runner in America's windiest city, Texas Amarillo.
The point is to control your efforts, not your pace. Start against the wind, and at half distance, turn back so that the wind blows in the back.
An exception: when running with obstacles and a fair wind in the back, you will fly faster than usual.
9. The rule of dialogue
During the run you should be able to speak in full sentences.
A recent study found that runners whose heart rate and respiration were within their target aerobic zone were free to recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the American Flag. Those who could not ran faster than their optimal pace.
An exception: it’s impossible to talk calmly during high-speed work or competitions (and for some people it’s difficult to speak in full sentences and at rest - approx. NB).
10. Rule 35 kilometers
Gradually increasing the mileage, run 35 km in front of the marathon at least once.
A long run imitates a marathon, which requires a long time on your feet. Knowing that you can run 35 kilometers will help you master 42.
An exception: some trainers believe that for experienced marathon runners it is enough to run 25 or 28 km as the longest training, while others advise to run up to 38 km.
11. Carbohydrate Rule
In your diet, focus on carbohydrates a few days before a long distance race.
“Carbohydrate loading” became the marathon mantra after it was suggested in 1967 by the Scandinavian studies that eating carbohydrates after a period of carbohydrate depletion creates supercharged athletes.
An exception: carbohydrate loading during regular workouts or before starting a short distance is gluttony. 🙂
12. The rule of seven years
Runners have been improving for seven years.
Mike Timn noted this back in the early 80s:
“My theory of seven years of adaptation was based on the fact that many of the runners I talked to showed their best results on average in the first seven years after they started running.”
An exception: for runners with a small mileage, the improvement in results can last up to ten years.
13. The rule of the left side of the road
For safety reasons, run towards traffic.
While running, it is better to see the transport than not to see it approaching from behind.
An exception: the right side of the road is safer if you are approaching a left turn with poor visibility and / or a narrow curb, and if there is a construction site on the left side of the road.
Here are a few simple rules to make your run safer.
14. The rule of running up and down
Running uphill slows down more than running downhill accelerates.
Therefore, keep in mind that running speed in the hills is lower than in the plain. Running away from the mountain, you do not get back the energy spent on running up.
An exception: when you run on rough terrain with alternating ascents and descents, your average pace will be higher than on a flat route.
For every two kilometers covered in a week, sleep an extra minute every night.
If you run 60 kilometers a week, sleep half an hour more each night.
“Lack of sleep negatively affects exercise. An average person needs 7.5-8 hours of sleep, so increase their duration if you exercise, ”recommends David Claman, head of the Center for the Study of Sleep Disorders at the University of California-San Francisco.
An exception: some high-energy people may not need extra sleep.
16. Refueling rule
Take food and drinks in a combination of carbohydrate-protein for 30-60 minutes after the competition, speed work or a long run.
“You need to replenish carbohydrates to restore exhausted glycogen in your muscles,” says Nancy Clark, a dietician, author of Food Guide for Marathon Runners. “Ideal if the carbohydrate-protein ratio is 4 to 1. Here are some examples: 150-300 calories of low-fat chocolate milk, a restorative sports drink, yogurt, or bagel and peanut butter.”
An exception: immediate refueling is not so important if you are not going for a hard running training in the next day.
17. The rule is not only running
Runners who only run are prone to injury.
“Adjacent or strength training will make you a stronger and healthier runner,” explains trainer Chris Suartout. “Unstressed sports such as cycling or swimming will help shape the auxiliary muscles used when running, and at the same time provide an opportunity to relax the main running muscles.”
An exception: the surest way to run better is to run. Therefore, if your time is limited, devote the lion's part of it to running.
18. The rule of uniform pace
The best way to set a personal record is to maintain a uniform pace from start to finish.
Most of the world records at 10,000 meters and in the marathon, established over the past decade, have a uniform pace, supported by runners.
“If you run very fast at the start of a race, you will almost always pay for it later,” warns John Sinclair, an American record holder at a distance of 12 km.
An exception: this does not apply to hilly routes or windy days, when the goal is to control uniform effort.
19. The rule of new sneakers
Change sneakers after every 600-800 kilometers.
“But even before they are so worn out,” says Warren Green, editor of Runner’s World, “buy a new pair and alternate it with the old one for a while. Do not wait until your only couple turns into trash. "
Keep in mind that shoes will be worn after spring.
An exception: the wear speed of the sneakers can be different - depending on the type of sneakers, your weight, the nature of the landing of the foot and the cover on which you run.
20. The rule is light / heavy
After a hard training day, allow yourself one “easy day."
“Light” means short, slow run or complete lack of training. A “hard day” is a long run, a pace run, or fast work.
“Give your body the necessary rest for the effectiveness of the next hard workout,” advises Tod Williams, a two-time Olympic participant.
An exception: after the most grueling speed work or a long run, especially if you are 40 or more, wait two or even three days before the next difficult workout.
21. The rule of 10 degrees
Dress for running training as if it were 10 degrees warmer outside than the thermometer actually shows.
In other words, dress according to how you will feel in the midst of jogging, and not during the first kilometers, when the body is still warming up.
“On cold days, it's a light, warm, and breathable top and tights,” said Emily Walser, author of clothing articles at Sporting Goods Business Magazine.
On warm days, wear light functional clothing that evaporates sweat well.
An exception: at a temperature of +20 degrees, wear minimal, light clothing in light colors.
Below is a reminder to help you get dressed correctly for your running workout. Keep in mind that on very windy days, you may need to dress warmer.
|Above 20 °||Light / light tank and shorts|
|15° – 20°||T-shirt (straps available) and shorts|
|10° – 15°||T-shirt and shorts|
|5° – 10°||Long-sleeved T-shirt and tights or shorts|
|0 – 5°||T-shirt with long sleeves and tights|
|-5° – 0||Two top layers and one bottom layer|
|-10° – -5°||Two top layers and one bottom layer|
|-15° – -10°||2-3 upper layers and 1-2 lower layers|
|Below -15 °||3 upper layers, 2 lower layers|
22. The pace rule for high-speed work
The most effective pace for maximum oxygen consumption is 20 sec / km faster than the pace of your 5 km distance.
The best way to increase aerobic performance and speed over long distances is to do VO2-max interval training. The pioneer of such training is Jack Daniels, Ph.D. and trainer:
“By energizing the aerobic system,” he says, “this pace optimizes the amount of blood pumped and the amount of oxygen your muscles can use.”
An exception: for fast runners, this pace is: 10 seconds faster per kilometer from the pace by 5 k, and for slow runners - by 30 seconds.
23. The Race of Race
The anaerobic threshold or speed for the pace run should be what you can maintain by running at your best for an hour.
This pace should be approximately 15 seconds slower per kilometer than your pace 10 kilometers, or 30 seconds slower per kilometer than your pace 5 kilometers.
The main benefit of this pace is that it is fast enough to increase stamina for heavy, long workouts, but also slow enough not to overload the muscles. The ideal duration for a pace run is 20-25 minutes.
An exception: for fast runners, this pace will be less than -15 seconds for a pace of 10 km (i.e. -5-10 sec). For slow ones - a little more than -30 seconds from the pace (i.e. -35-40 seconds) per 10 km.
24. The long-distance tempo rule
During long workouts, keep your pace at least two minutes slower per kilometer than your pace for 5 kilometers.
“Indeed, you cannot run very slowly during long workouts,” says Jeff Galloway, Runner’s World correspondent. But a very fast, fast pace can increase recovery time and increase the risk of injuries. "
An exception: on hot days you need to run even slower.
25. The finish time rule